A surge in economic sanctions and a tangled web of international blacklists are overwhelming in-house compliance staffs and lifting the ledgers of third-party compliance services. Fines issued by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, which enforces U.S. sanctions, issued about $1.29 billion in penalties against 22 companies  in 2019, compared with $71.5 million against seven companies in 2018.