As startups stay private longer with higher valuations, individual investors are gaining access to invest via special purpose vehicles (SPV). These SPVs are being created and managed by venture funds. The SPVs also enable venture funds to write bigger checks to compete with the billions of dollars pouring into later-stage startups from mutual funds, hedge funds and banks. Historically banks have created SPVs for their own wealthy customers, giving clients special access to hot deals. For example Goldman created an SPV in 2011 to market shares of Facebook year before the social network went public.